The Post Office Denmark is run by Post Danmark. Their official website is www.PostDanmark.dk, where you can get more information on specific shipping costs.
This page is dedicated to give you an overview of how the system works from the view of a citizen.
The average rate of posting a letter is probably the highest in the world. At least I have not found any other country with higher rates. (I could be wrong).
It is actually cheaper to send packages from overseas than it is to send a package across town in Denmark! Like that makes any sense? You can view the postal rates in Denmark at Post Danmark.
P.S. I often drive to Germany (200km) to mail packages to the UK and US, since it is still cheaper to pay for the trip to Germany and pay the German postal fees, which are substantially lower. Saved 900kr just on a couple of packages to the UK.
Post Danmark uses lots of bicycle couriers to deliver much of their mail in the city and yellow trucks in the outlying areas and country. You will often see bicycles like the one below around town loaded down with packages and letters.
When you mail a letter to Denmark, you will need to include a postal code (same as a zip code) which is always 4 digits long. These are listed before the city name. For example: 2500 Valby. The postal code is 2500 and the city is Valby.
The codes run from 1000 to 9999. Sjælland or Zealand uses the numbers 1000 to 4999, while 5000 to 5999 is for Fyn /Funen and 6000 to 9999 is Jutland. Bornholm has 3700 to 3799.
These can be divided into more subcatgories of Copenhagen area, north and south Zealand, North, South and Mid Jutland, etc.
Exceptions: If you are given a 3 number postal code, it will be a post office box and not a physical address. Double check you get the right postal code.
You can see all the postal codes here.
There are two types of postal rates in Denmark. You can send it first class (A post) or you can choose economy class (B post). Have sent letters using both services and the "B" delivery time is maybe a day slower.
Post Offices Denmark are being closed down and it is only in the major cities that you will actually find a post office building. For example in Copenhagen, Arhus, etc..
Outside of the major city centers, you will find the post office is located in a grocery store, boutique or other type store. You need to look for the Post Danmark sign. There opening hours will vary from place to place. Some are only open in the morning, while others in the afternoon and some all day from 10am to 6pm (Monday to Friday) and 10 am to 2 pm on Saturdays. Do not be surprised that the smaller post offices have limited opening hours.
Postal ettiquette. When you write your return address it should be crossed out. Just put a light "x" through the address. It is also usually on the back side versus the upper left corner as it is common in the states and UK.
The return address should still be legible, but makes sure the post office knows which address to deliver to and which one to return to if necessary. You can also use Til: , which means "to" and Fra:, which means from.
FYI: If a letter is sent with too little postage, it will incur a fee. I have twice received letters delivered to me and when asked to pay for the extra postage and surcharge, I refused. You should too and this is why.
The letter will be returned to the sender if you do not pay the extra postage and they will have to pay the fee. Don't be forced to pay, since it can often be a junk letter. The surcharge can easily run up to 50 kroner or more!
Post offices Denmark boxes are located around the city centers and can easily be spotted since they are bright red.
If you receive a lot of letters / packages and it is difficult to get in your building or there is no one home to sign for packages, you may wish to sign up for "døgnposten", which is an offsite station where the post office delivers your packages and letters. You get a code to use to collect them there at your convenience. You can read more about it at "døgnposten".
If you plan to use the Danish Postal System, I suggest you get a folder from the post office Denmark with all their rates and conditions.
You can read more about the various options at Denmark postal rates at Post Office Danmark. Remember to click the English icon (located to left of search box) to see the pages in English.
There are a few things to be aware of in order to keep getting mail and only the mail you want.
1. The name of people residing in your house, apartment, etc. should be listed on your mailbox or door. If not,the post office may not deliver the mail to you.
2. If you do not want junk mail, flyers, free newspapers, etc. you go to your local post office and ask to sign up for the "no advertisement" program. They will than either give you a sticker than and there if they have them or one will be posted to you. You can than put that on the mailbox or on your door and they will stop stuffing all that junk in your door/mailbox.
There are 2 types of stickers, one for all junk mail and one that says you still want the free newspapers.
3. New post office Denmark rules requiring the placement of your mailboxes went into effect on January 1, 2012. If you are responsible for your own mailbox, make sure it complies to the new rules. All apartments must have a central postboxes in the lobby. Stand alone properties must have a post box out near the entrance to their house and not on the porch or by the front door.
This is good news for the postbox manufacturers, but millions of Danish homes will be out shopping for new boxes.
You can learn about that at Post Danmark.
4. The last piece of advice is that you can not leave outgoing mail in your box, on top of your box for pick up. The post people do not like collecting the mail. There is someone else for that job. If you know your postperson, you can sometimes ask them if you see them, but they are not obligated to do so.
5. You can buy stamps from your local grocery store, where many small post offices Denmark are located, at the post office and via SMS. You can learn more about post office Denmark's text messaging stamp service here.